Super Capacitors Types and Advantages

Super Capacitor (EDLC)

The scientific name for super capacitors is Electrostatic Double-Layer Capacitors (EDLC). They are also known by various names such as Super Capacitor, Gold Capacitor, Ultra Capacitor, Pseudo Capacitor, and Farad Capacitor. The characteristics of electrostatic double-layer capacitors lie between batteries and traditional capacitors. They serve as energy storage devices with high power, high energy, and small size characteristics. As humanity strives to address energy crises and environmental concerns while aiming for a lightweight and efficient lifestyle, super capacitor technology represents a technological advancement pushing human living and quality into new realms.

Super Capacitor

Structure of Super Capacitors

Comparing batteries and super capacitors as energy storage devices, several advantages of super capacitors become apparent. These include:

  1. Long Cycle Life
  2. Efficient Charging and Discharging
  3. Good Reversibility
  4. Low Resistance
  5. High Power Density
  6. Simple Circuit Design
  7. Wide Operating Temperature Range (-40°C to +85°C)
  8. Environmentally Friendly
  9. Convenient Transportation (Air and Sea)
Super Capacitor

Types of Super Capacitors

Super capacitors can generally be categorized into three types based on application circuits. These three types are Button Type Gold Capacitors, Wound Type Super Capacitors, and Thin Type Ultra Capacitors. Each type has distinct characteristics suitable for specific applications.

Coin type Super Cap

Coin type Gold Capacitors

  1. Coin type Gold Capacitor: Real-Time Clock (RTC) Circuits

These capacitors, used in real-time clock circuits (RTC), exhibit extremely low leakage current and self-discharge characteristics. Gold capacitors provide a stable power source to maintain the time and clock information in RTC circuits. Through calculations, they can sustain standby times ranging from minutes to months, depending on the power consumption of the circuit. Brands: Korchip, Eaton

Radial type Super Cap
Radial type Super Capacitors

    2. Radial type Super Capacitor: Main Power Supply

These capacitors have capacitance several thousand to tens of thousands of times higher than traditional electrolytic capacitors. They are crucial for power supply systems, offering rapid energy storage and high-power output. They reduce the load on batteries during frequent charge and discharge cycles, extending battery life. Additionally, with energy recovery efficiency approaching 100%, they quickly recover energy in batteries, providing high-power output to loads for optimal energy utilization. Brands: YEC, Vina, Maxwell, LICAP, Tecate, CAP-XX, Korchip, Eaton

Slim type Super Cap
Thin Type Ultra Capacitors

     3. Slim type Ultra Capacitor: Pulse Power

This type of electrochemical capacitor, with high power density in a small volume, is suitable for pulse power applications. It can output high power, ranging from 4A to 6A current in 5V circuit applications. With low leakage current (1uA/cell) and low impedance (ESR), these capacitors are also suitable for energy harvesting circuit applications. They are components with small volume, capable of storing low-energy sources and providing high-power output. The advantages of being lightweight and thin make them essential components in wearable devices, metaverse applications, IoT-related applications, and more.

Reasons for Using Super Capacitors:

  • Rapid charge and discharge power requirements
  • Small volume allows designers to fully utilize available space
  • Super capacitors do not inherently store power, making them safe for handling with no associated risks
  • Easy monitoring of remaining power, as stored energy is directly related to voltage and easily controlled
  • Long lifespan, capable of repeated charge and discharge cycles exceeding hundreds of thousands, and environmentally friendly
  • Enhances battery or fuel cell efficiency, providing high-power instantaneous output to support system requirements
  • Wide temperature range usability, from high temperatures up to 85°C or as low as -40°C, providing safe power for diverse system needs

Applications of Super Capacitors:

  • Smart meters
  • Rail transportation
  • Vehicle-related applications
  • Solar power applications
  • Wind energy applications
  • Uninterruptible power systems
  • Communication and transmission applications
  • Industrial handheld PDAs
  • IoT transmission applications
  • Electronic paper applications
  • Energy harvesting applications
  • RFID electronic tags
  • Medical products
  • Consumer electronics
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